La fuerza lingual como una característica clínica de la salud oral en pacientes neurológicos: Una Revisión Sistemática

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Resumen

Objetivo: La evaluación actual de la salud bucal tiene una visión integral de la relación entre los tejidos duros y blandos de la boca según se observa en práctica de la ortodoncia y la prostodoncia en la población sana. Apesar de conocer la influencia que tiene esta relación en resultados funcionales como la deglución y la masticación, la evaluación motora de los tejidos blandos como la lengua es aún escasa. Esta falta de conocimiento es aún mayor en personas con una condición neurológica. En este sentido, la medición de la fuerza lingual ha sido abordada por algunas investigaciones como un elemento clave que acompaña a la rehabilitación oral en población sana. Reconociendo la importancia de la fuerza lingual en la biomecánica bucal,  el Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) se ha convertido en un instrumento estándar de medición. El propósito de este artículo fue buscar estudios científicos sobre la fuerza lingual en pacientes neurológicos utilizando el IOPI como herramienta de investigación, para conocer su inclusión en la intervención clínica y rehabilitación integral de la salud bucal en esta población. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en cinco grandes bases de datos basada en el Protocolo PRISMA. Las búsquedas fueron realizadas en las bases PubMed, Medline and Lilacs, Web of Science y MedCarib incluyendo artículos desde 2007 al 2020. Para generar la búsqueda en cada base de datos, se desarrollaron tres constructos: (1) "tongue Strength IOPI"; (2) "Swallowing Disorders"; (3) "Neurological Diseases". Resultados: Se  identificaron 152 estudios, 14 se incluyeron en la revisión final. La escala PEDro se evidenció gran heterogeneidad en el nivel de evidencia entre los estudios  con sólo 5 RCT y únicamente dos de ellos sobre entrenamiento de fuerza lingual. El IOPI se utilizó principalmente para medir la fuerza lingual y sólo en un 36% como dispositivo de entrenamiento clínico, lo cual pudiese contribuir a mejorar la salud oral. Conclusion: El ACV fue el más representado (79%). Se necesita adicionar evidencia sobre el entrenamiento de la fuerza lingual en individuos con afecciones neurológicas como la enfermedad de Parkinson dada la creciente prevalencia reportada por la literatura científica.

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Publicado

2021-08-31

Cómo citar

Plaza-Taucare, E. ., Dornelles-Bilheri, D. ., Mancopes, R. ., & Busanello-Stella, A. R. (2021). La fuerza lingual como una característica clínica de la salud oral en pacientes neurológicos: Una Revisión Sistemática. Journal of Oral Research, 10(4), 1-14. Recuperado a partir de http://revistas.udec.cl/index.php/journal_of_oral_research/article/view/7591

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