A Legacy of Animosity in the Southern Cone of South America? Attitudes of Paraguayan Consumers Towards Argentina and Brazil


  • Michael Pisani Central Michigan University
  • Alcides G. Cáceres Zarate Independent Researcher
  • José-Carlos Tello Universidad Americana
  • Silvio Eduardo Becker Universidad Americana




Consumer Animosity, Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil


Purpose: This article explores the interconnection between Paraguayan consumer behavior and products from Argentina and Brazil, situating the study within the context of past hostilities (animosity) and present uneven relations among the three nations.

Methodology: Employing snowball sampling methodology, we conducted surveys with 385 middle- and upper-class Paraguayans from the greater Asunción area, both in-person and online, during the first half of 2022. The survey included questions on country-of-origin scales (specially consumer animosity), product preferences, and demographics. We developed and estimated a conceptual model connecting antecedents with Paraguayan consumer attitudes toward Argentina and Brazil using multiple regression.

Findings:  The impact of acculturation and the receipt of household remittances is significant on consumer animosity (CA). Elevated levels of acculturation intensify CA, while receiving   household remittances acts as a mitigating factor against CA feelings.

Practical Implications: Novel antecedents of consumer animosity inform and may guide decision-making for businesses and policymaking in addressing consumer animosity in Paraguay.

Originality: This is the first study of consumer animosity in Paraguay.


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Author Biographies

Michael Pisani, Central Michigan University

Es profesor de Negocios Internacionales en la Universidad Central de Michigan. Sus intereses de investigación se centran en los negocios internacionales, el emprendimiento, y la economía informal en las Américas. El Dr. Pisani fue becario Fulbright de EE.UU. en Paraguay en 2019. 

Alcides G. Cáceres Zarate, Independent Researcher

Es un investigador independiente, con una Licenciatura en Economía y un diplomado en teoría económica por la Universidad Católica (Paraguay), así como un diplomado en fintech por la Universidad Nacional (Paraguay).



How to Cite

Pisani, M., Cáceres Zarate, A. G., Tello, J.-C., & Becker, S. E. (2023). A Legacy of Animosity in the Southern Cone of South America? Attitudes of Paraguayan Consumers Towards Argentina and Brazil. RAN - Revista Academia & Negocios, 10(1), 68-83. https://doi.org/10.29393/RAN10-5LAMS40005



Research Article

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